Tuesday, 20 June 2017

The Eritrean Peoples' Peaceful Struggle in 1950s

The Eritrean Peoples' Peaceful Struggle in 1950s

The Eritrean people resorted to armed struggle, not by choice, but after exhausting all possible peaceful protests. This ELF document lists the names of persons who wrote protest messages to the UN and the Emperor complaining that the Ethiopian Government was undermining the Federal Arrangement between Eritrea and Ethiopia

 لجأ الشعب الإريتري إلى الكفاح المسلح، ليس عن طريق الاختيار، ولكن بعد استنفاد جميع الاحتجاجات السلمية الممكنة. تسرد هذه الوثيقة أسماء الأشخاص الذين كتبوا رسائل احتجاجية إلى الأمم المتحدة واشتكوالى الإمبراطور من أن الحكومة الإثيوبية تقوض الترتيب الاتحادي بين إريتريا وإثيوبيا


Sunday, 18 June 2017

EPRP's Evaluation of the TPLF 1980

EPRP's Evaluation of the TPLF 1980

In the mid seventies, while the ELF and EPLF competed in Eritrea for space, influence and power; the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Party (EPRP), TLF (Tigray Liberation Front), Ethiopian Democratic Union (EDU) and TPLF did the same in Tigray. This is how the EPRP evaluated the TPLF


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

More on EPRP:

Friday, 16 June 2017

Press Conference by the Secretary General of the Provisional Government of Eritrea, 1991

Press Conference by the Secretary General of the Provisional Government of Eritrea, 1991:
- On economic policies
- On development of Communications
- On repatriation of of Ethiopian Prisoners of war
- If there were 'Amhara civilians expelled
- If political parties will be allowed before the referendum
- You referred to enemies in your September 1st, could you tell us on those enemies and he replies they are the French, Egyptians and Saudis
- On role of NGOs
- On involvement of ELF in the Government
- On option of association with Ethiopia
- On the size of the army

Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

Saturday, 10 June 2017

1967: The circumstances under which ELF fighters started to surrender to Ethiopia in groups

1967: The circumstances under which ELF fighters started to surrender to Ethiopia in groups 

1967: الظروف التي بدأ فيها مقاتلو الجبهة في الاستسلام لأثيوبيا في مجموعات

وكان من بينهم هيلى ولد تنسائ دروع  وموسي تيسفاميكائل 

The Arabic version: http://www.mediafire.com/file/w2i7v7p51241gra/ELF+fighters+surrender+1967.pdf

المصدر: كتاب عثمان دندن، معركة آرتريا
شكرا لمحمود لوبينت لتوفيره الكتاب

Picture of the 19 fighters that surrendered to Ethiopia on 28/08/1967, among whom were 
  Musie Tefamichael (11) and Haile Durue (14 )

With the increased operations of the ELF and expanding those operations to the highlands, the Ethiopian Government took several measures to try to wipe out the ELF. In February 1967, the Ethiopian Government, under Asrate Kassa, employing the regular army and the Israeli trained Commandos, waged a scorched earth policy in the Lowlands and the Muslim villages in the highlands. More than 69 villages were burned and hundreds of civilians killed were killed and about 30,000 Eritreans took refuge in the Sudan. Large numbers of livestock were bombed, wells were poisoned.

 In June 6 , 1967 (the start of the 6th Days Arab-Israeli war) Asrate Kassa issued an amnesty, to the ELF fighters which were referred to as Shifta, written in both Tigrinya and Arabic, and widely circulated to surrunder themselves and arms to the Ethiopian Government. The Amnesty was to last until 23 July the same year. Wide meetings were held in the highlands and people were encouraged to form militias against the ELF. The ELF was portrayed as Muslim and Arab. They also waged a diplomatic effort to isolate the ELF in Sudan. Asrate Kassa even formed a ‘peace Committee’ to negotiate with the rebels on their surrender. They even sent agents to the ELF who would later surrender with their weapons and were rewarded for that. During those trying times every fighter and every rifle was very important to the ELF. The main target of all those attempts were Christian highlanders.

That year the ELF was in a political and economic crisis, it had not enough arms. it was unable to defend the people. There was also a leadership crisis, there was no clear political program, the leadership was previously based outside Eritrea and were not able to manage the secondary contradictions that arose among various competing factions. Between those who wanted to reform the movement and those who wanted to maintain the status coup. The ELF then was predominantly lowland, thus the majority of whom were Muslims. Most of the contradictions was among them, thus it was never Muslim-Christian. It must have been more difficult for the few Christians highlanders who joined the ELF, under such circumstances.

Under those conditions, Isaias Afworki and his colleagues had formed a small cell in Asmara with the aim of joining the ELF as a clandestine organization and those in the leadership were Isaias, Haile Derue and Tesfai Gebre Sellasie. As we knew later, when Isaias split from the ELF in 1968, according to Tesfamichael Giorgo he had contacts with the Kagnew Station and Asrate Kassa who supplied the Isaias group with Arms. Testimonies given by Ethiopian General, Daniel Mengistu, who was Haile Sellasie’s foreign security chief, indicated in 2000 that Isaias was in the payroll of the Ethiopian Security services. Asrate Kassa’s son, who lives in London, recalled (personal communication) that Isaias and Hurui were among the visitors who came to see his father, Asrate Kassa, when he was in White Chapel Hospital , there. All those issues, may indicate that Isaias aim from the outset was to dismantle the ELF and how his close colleagues like Haile Derue, believed in him to the last.

Haile Durue narrated in detail in his conversations with Dan Connell, see the link below, how the group felt disappointed by the ELF and how he later recruited Musie Tesfamichael to the group. He also discussed how they decided to work clandestinely in the ELF, that they discouraged highlanders to join the ELF, until they establish their own organization. They also encouraged those who were in the ELF to leave it and pursue their studies, until further notice. Derue also stated that he was opposed to the leader of the 5th military region established in October 1966. He actually indicated he exploited the contradictions between the Revolutionary leadership in Kassala and the 5th Military Zone, to the advantage of their group. Derue also stated he was against all Christians being in one Zone (5th zone), but later they established ‘Selfi Nasent’ with Isaias whose members were solely Christian highlanders at the beginning. It was under those circumstances that some Christian highlanders started to surrender to Ethiopia in big groups.

On 29/8/1967, The Tigrinya and Arabic newspapers, ‘Hiberet and ‘Al Wihda’ published that 19 ELF fighters have surrendered to Ethiopia making advantage of the amnesty given by the Government. It was stated that most of them were students who were cheated by the ELF propaganda. They surrendered to the Ethiopian Consul in Kassala and were later transferred to Ethiopia and they were:
1 Abraha Habteley, 24 years joined the ELF 4 years ago, was 9th grade in Keren
2  Negussie Hizbay 22 years, spent 2 ½ years, student at Teachers Training Institute (TTI), Asmara
3  Woldai Tefai Yohannes, 22 years, spent 14 months
4 Yemane Tesfay, 20 years, spent 1 year, merchant
5 Andeberhan Andemariam, 23 years, spent 2 years
6 Yohannes Liban, 24 years, 2 ½ years
7 Zere Senai Tekle, 22 years, spent 13 months, 12th grade student at General Wingate
8 Haile Woldemichael, 25 years, spent 1 year, was 11th year student at Prince Mekonen Secondary School in Asmara (PMSC)
9 Tesfay Asfaha, 25 years, spent 5 months, 9th grade PMSC
10 Debessay Asfaha, 26 years, spent 3 months, student PMSC
11 Musie Tesfamichael, 20 years spent 7 months and was 2nd year at Haile Sellasie University in Addis Ababa (HSIU)
  2 Habtu Tecle, 19 years, student at 12th grade at PMSC
13 Solomon Gebrehiwet, two years, was a farmer
14 Haile Wolde Tensae, 21 years, spent 7 months, was Student at HSIU
15 Yihdego Berhe, 19 years, spent 2 months, student at Hibret School in Asmara
16 Yohannes Mebrahtu, 21 years, 18 months, was 1st year student at HSIU
17 Teklemariam Gebreyesus, 18 years, spent about a year, was student at TTI
18 Wolde Araya, 19 years, spent 19 months, was student at TTI
19 Zeray Tikabo, student at PMSC

The arms surrendered included, A mortar, 2 Bazooka, 3 machine guns, 15 thousand ammunition for machine guns, One binocular for a Bazooka and one binocular for Mortar

In another development, the Arabic Ethiopian Weekly, ‘Al Alem’ published on November 8, 1967 that Woldai Kahsai (who was the leader of the 5th Military Zone of the ELF) and 19 of his follwers arrived from Khartoum by air. Directly upon their arrival, they met with Tesfayohannes Berhe , the Deputy of Asrate Kassa. The meeting was also attended by other Government officials: Ali Radaai, Hamid Ferej, Haregot Abbay, Gebre Yohannes Tesfamariam, General Teshome Ergetu, Zere Mariam Azazi and others.

In yet another development, 3 of the 2nd batch of the 21 military trainees in China, upon completion of the training in mid August 1968, refused to return to Eritrea and travelled to Damascus instead. Those were Germichael Woldegebriel, Tesfay Gebremariam and Berekhet Iyob. They letters to Osman Saleh Sabbe that they feared for their safety if they returned to Eritrea. But among the trainees were Mesfin Hagos Bidu, Arefaine Sebhat and Fesseha Abraha Fikak who returned to the field with the others.

Source of the names: Osman Denden Book, 'Maareket Eritrea', in Arabic,
Conversation of Haile Durue with Dan Connell, 2000:

Sunday, 4 June 2017

The ELF Regional Military Structure 1965/1966 الهيكل العسكري للجبهة

الهيكل العسكري للجبهة 1965/1966

وفي 20  يوليو 1965، قرر المجلس الأعلى للجبهة في جلسته المعقودة في الفترة من 8 إلى 20 يوليو إنشاء 4 مناطق عسكرية، وتسمية المسؤولين عن تلك المناطق. ودخل القرار حيز التنفيذ في 28 يوليو 1965. تأسست المنطقة الخامسة في 20/10/1966

The ELF Regional Military Structure 1965/1966

On 20 July 1965, the ELF Supreme Council decided in its session held 8 - 20 July to establish 4 military zones and named those responsible for the zones. The decision came into effect on the 28th July 1965. The 5th Zone was established on 20/10/ 1966


المصدر: كتاب عثمان دندن، معركة آرتريا

شكرا لمحمود لوبينت لتوفيره الكتاب

Saturday, 3 June 2017

The original opinion of Ethiopian Nationalities on the Jeberti 1987 in Amharic

The original opinion of the Institute for the study of Ethiopian Nationalities on the Jeberti 1987, in Amharic 

When the Jeberti, in Eritrea requested that they be recognized as a separate nationality, The ruling party then, The Workers Party of Ethiopia (WPE) , did not arrest them or kill them, but sent a team of experts from the  Institute for the study of Ethiopian Nationalities to study their case. This is the original opinion of the team.


Thanks to Mahmoud Lobinet for sharing

Friday, 2 June 2017

Baduri on the formation of the EPLF clandestine party

 تكوين الحزب السري للجبهة الشعبية
بقلم أحمد طاهر بادوري
Baduri on  the formation of the EPLF clandestine party. 'Eritrean People's Revolutionary Party'


The founding meeting of the Eritrean Peoples’ Revolutionary Party (the clandestine party of the EPLF)

Ahmed Tahir Badouri, in his book, ‘Journey through the memory’, in Arabic recalls;

The founding meeting was held at Mount Gedem. We met secretly there at night accompanied by Abubaker Mohamed Hassen. The other colleagues came in the morning. We took breakfast and tea. Later we were called to what is now known as a conference hall. The opening ceremony was on 04.04.1971. The meeting was opened by martyr Abubaker who presented the agenda and items for discussion that was approved without any additions. There was a humble participation due to the need for secrecy. This was done in agreement with the ‘Revolutionary Nucleus’ that was formed in Southern Dankalia by PLF1. The Meeting was attended by the democratic elements in both groups (he means PLF1 that was formed in Dankalia and by the Isaias or Ala group as it was known). Those who attended according to their responsibilities were: Mohamed Ali Omero, Isaias Afeworki, Ramadan Mohamed Nur, martyr Abubaker Mohamed Hassen Gadi, Mahmoud Ahmed Sherifo, Mesfin Hagos, Ibrahim Ali Affa, Ali Seid Abdella, Maasho Embaye, Ahmed Mohamed Nur Hilal. Ahmed Saleh al Gaisi, and Ahmed Tahir Badouri.

Romadan Mohamed Nur chaired the meeting and presented the elaborate founding documents of the Party, analysis of the current situation in relation to the formation of the party and the front in general. The draft and the bylaws of the party, its objectives, and the organizational framework, and a leadership concept based on democratic centralism were presented. The papers were thoroughly discussed, and were amended or additions were included and were later approved unanimously. The organizational structure of the party and its name were discussed in detail. It was agreed to change the name from ‘The Eritrean Communist Party’ which I think was taken from the Sudanese Communist Party, to the “Eritrean Peoples’ Revolutionary Party” named after the ‘Vietnamese Peoples’ Revolutionary Party’. Consideration was also taken that people may be sensitive to the use of the word, communist. A temporary leadership of three persons were chosen, who were Romodan Mohamed Nur, Isaias Afeworki and Abubaker Mohamed Hassen

The secrecy of the party required very rigid discipline.

Source: Ahmed Tahir Badouri’s book, ‘Journey through the memory’, Pages 144 – 146

Thanks to Ibrahim Abubaker for giving me the book

Thursday, 1 June 2017

لائحة تنظيمية خاصة بأسر المقاتلين والشهداء ألمتواجدين في مقر القيادة الثورية A 1967 ELF regulation concerning the families of the fighters and the martyrs

لائحة تنظيمية خاصة بأسر المقاتلين والشهداء ألمتواجدين في مقر القيادة الثورية
A 1967 regulation concerning the families of the fighters and the martyrs in the headquarters of the revolutionary leadership of the ELF in Kassala 

Among the regulations we find:

- It is not allowed to recruit any person whatever his military importance is, if he supports a family
- It is not allowed for the fighters to bring their families to headquarters to be taken care of by the ELF
- If any fighter's situation changes in such a way that he has to take care of his family, he should be relieved to fulfill his duties to the family
- For the families of the revolutionary leadership that the ELF takes care of, the following rules apply: A one person family excluding the wife gets 3 Sudanese pounds (SP) /month; if the family consists of only a wife or a family of three, gets 6 SP, a family with 4 or 5 dependents gets 7.5 SD, A family above 5 gets 10 SD


المصدر: كتاب عثمان دندن، معركة آرتريا
شكرا لمحمود لوبينت لتوفيره الكتاب

Saturday, 27 May 2017

The constitution of Eritrea 1952

The constitution of Eritrea 1952

In the name of Almighty God,
 Trusting that He may grant Eritrea peace, concord and prosperity,
And that the Federation of Eritrea and Ethiopia may be harmonious and fruitful, We, the Eritrean Assembly, acting on behalf of the Eritrean people,

Grateful to the United Nations for recommending that Eritrea shall constitute an autono- mous unit federated with Ethiopia under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian Crown and that its Constitution be based on the principles of democratic government,
Desirous of satisfying the wishes and ensuring the welfare of the inhabitants of Eritrea by close and economic association with Ethiopia and by respecting the rights and safe- guarding the institutions, traditions, religions and languages of all the elements of the population.

Resolved to prevent any discrimination and to ensure under a regime of freedom and equality, the brotherly collaboration of the various races and religions in Eritrea, and to promote economic and social progress.
Trusting fully in God, the Master of the Universe.
Do hereby adopt this Constitution as the Constitution of Eritrea.
Eritrean Constituent Assembly July 15, 1952


Thanks to Jelal Yassin for sharing

النقوش الكتابية في جزيرة دهلك ١٨٩٣ Written inscriptions on the island of Dahlak 1893

Written inscriptions on the island of Dahlak 1893


Thanks to Mahmoud Lobinet for sharing

Friday, 26 May 2017

وثيقة تاريخيه من ادارة اوقاف مصوع 9 مارس 1944 A document from the Islamic court of Massawa Stating Kekia's endowment to build schools

وثيقة تاريخيه من ادارة اوقاف مصوع 9 مارس 1944

الواقف: صالح أحمد كيكيا، البائع المشتري، مصوع، أسمرا والحبشه من اهل بلدة حرقيقو، حيث تعهد بانشاء مدارس ابتدائيه و ثانويه ببلدة حرقيقو للتعلم الديني وكذالك لبناء مسجد بجوارها ووقف عليها يكفل تخليدها يقوم بالتبرع 48 دكان حجر ببرنداتها بأديس أببا في حي فيتوراري هبتي قرقيس وكل دكان مؤجر بعشرين ريال ابو طيارة:
عثمان احمد كيكيا، أحمد عبد القادر بشير، محمد حاج رمضان، محمد عبدالقادربشير، ادريس نائب حسن، صالح محمد باطوق أحمد، ادريس بشير برحتو
القاضي: الخليفة حسن عثمان
الشكر لجلال ياسين الذي اتاح لنا الوثيقة


A historical document from the Endowments Department, of the Islamic Court of Massawa Massawa, March 9, 1944

Business man, Saleh Ahmad Kikya, in, Masawa, Asmara and Habashah from the town of Hargeiku, where he pledged to establish primary and secondary schools in the town of Hargiku for religious learning. Also, he built a mosque next to it and promised to cover running costs.
. He donated 48  shops he owned  in Addis Ababa,

Othman Ahmed Kikya, Ahmed Abdel Qader Bashir, Mohamed Haj Ramadan, Mohamed Abdelkader  Bashir, Idris Hassan Naib, Saleh Mohammed Batrouk Ahmed, Idris Bashir Berhatu
Judge: Calipha Hassan Osman
Thanks to Jalal Yassin,  for sharing the document

Thanks to Jelal Yassin for sharing

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

من التثقيف السياسي للجبهة الشعبية ١٩٧٠ From the TPLF Poltical Education 1970, in Arabic

من التثقيف السياسي للجبهة الشعبية ١٩٧٠ 

عملية غسيل الدماغ

From the TPLF Poltical Education 1970, in Arabic
where the brain washing began


شكرا لمحمود لوبينت لتوفيره الكتيب

Monday, 22 May 2017

كتاب الطراز المنقوش في محاسن الحبوش An Arabic book on the virtues of Abyssinians

كتاب الطراز المنقوش في محاسن الحبوش

Al Mangosh Fi Mahasin Al Hubush: A book on the virtues of Abyssinians on what the prophet Mohamed said about Abyssinians, on the interactions of the first Muslim refugees in Abyssinia, their interactions with the Nagashi, king of Abyssina, on virtues of Abyssinians


شكرا لمحمود لوبينت لتوفيره الكتيب

Thursday, 18 May 2017

ELF military Trainees abroad 1960s

ELF military Trainees abroad 1960s

قائمة باسماء مقاتلي الجبهة الذين تدربو بالخارج في الستينات  


المصدر: كتاب عثمان دندن، معركة آرتريا
شكرا لمحمود لوبينت لتوفيره الكتاب

Tuesday, 16 May 2017

A brief summary of Eritrean Customary Laws

A brief summary of Eritrean Customary Laws, by Omar M. Kekia and Ghidewon A. Asmerom for Dehai موجز للقانون العرفي الإريتري    ويشمل القانون العرفي للبني عامر والعفروالمنسع والكوناما وغيرهما



A historical background about the Bet Maala tribes نبذة تأريخية عن البيت معلا

نبذة تأريخية عن البيت معلا

موقعة من نظار أل محمود، أل حماسين، أل أبوحشيلا، أل عد يعقوب

A short historical background of the Bet Maala tribes, one of the components of the Beni Amer, who live both in Eritrea and Eastern Sudan. The document was signed by the chiefs (Nazirs) of Al Mahmoud, Al Hamasein, Al Abu Hashela and Al Ad Yacoub. As to the name Hamasein, the documents states those were descendents of one of the sons of the forefather who married a Jeberti woman from Hamasein and thus that branch is named Bet Maala Hamasein


Sunday, 14 May 2017

Regional Dynamics of Inter-ethnic Conflicts in the Horn of Africa: An Analysis of the Afar-Somali Conflict in Ethiopia and Djibouti

Regional Dynamics of Inter-ethnic Conflicts in the Horn of Africa: An Analysis of the Afar-Somali Conflict in Ethiopia and Djibouti , a 2010 PhD thesis from the University of Hamburg, by YASIN MOHAMMED YASIN from Assab

This case study proves  that dynamics in regional political orders have been contributing for the escalation of the long-lasting conflicts between the Afar and Somali people whose homeland straddles the borders of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somaliland. Besides, findings of the study also indicate that all unilateral resolution efforts undertaken by individual states of Ethiopia and Djibouti where both ethnicities commonly inhabiting have been fruitless since the time of colonial rules. Indeed, this study further emphasis and analyse the impact of national politico-economic factors (in Ethiopia and Djibouti) that aggravate the tension and further sophisticate map of the conflict.


Saturday, 13 May 2017

Beni Amer marriage customs 1919

Beni Amer marriage customs published in Sudan Notes and Records, Khartoum Vol.2 1919, pp. 74 - 76

Video: The  brutality of the Abyssinians in the aftermath of the battle of Adwa 1896

The  brutality of the Abyssinians in the aftermath of the battle of Adwa
displayed at the Museum of Ethnography, Stockholm, Sweden

This photo was taken in 1896 in a field hospital in Massawa, Eritrea. It depicts Eritrean askari (soldiers) and some Italian officers. The soldiers were captured in a battle on March 1, 1896, between the invading Italian colonial army and Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The Ethiopians won the battle and 2000 Eritrean soldiers who were in Italian service were killed and 800 were captured. As punishment for what the Ethiopians regarded as treason, the right hand and left foot of the captured were cut off. According to the Italian subtitle this was done at the monastery of Abba Garima east of Adwa, in the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia. Many of the captives died from their injuries. This video was made for the exhibition "The Storage - An Ethnographic Treasure" displayed at the Museum of Ethnography, Stockholm, Sweden

الترجمه العربيه: هذه الصوره التقطت في عام 1896 في مستشفى ميداني في مصوع، بإرتريا. يصور العساكر الإرتريين وبعض الضباط الايطالين. ماتبقوا من المعركة التى كانت ب...تاريخ 1 مارس 1896، وبين الجيش الإيطالي والاثيوبي - بعد ان انتصر الإثيوبيين في تلك المعركة الشهيره وكان هناك حوالي 2000 جندي إرتري الذين كانوا في خدمة الجيش الايطالي بعضهم قتلوا وأسروا حوالي 800. و عقابا لهم على ما يعتبره الإثيوبيين خيانة، من قبض عليهم تم قطع اليد اليمنى والقدم اليسرى. وتم ذلك في دير الأنبا جاريما شرق عدوة، في منطقة تجراي في شمال إثيوبيا. توفي العديد من الأسرى. هذا الفيديو معروض في متحف الاثنوغرافيا، باستوكهولم، السويد


Monday, 8 May 2017

When the ill fated National Development Campaign (NDC) was launched May 2, 1998

When the PFDJ launched the ill-fated National Development Campaign (NDC) in 1998 just few days before the Badme War. It was to begin on 29th April,1998 and was supposed to end on the 28th May, 1998. About 50,000 youth participated in it, BUT IT NEVER ENDED. After a series of armed incidents in which several Eritrean officials were killed near Badme on the 6th of May, 1998,  a large Eritrean mechanized force entered and occupied Badme and refused to leave. Ethiopia declared war on the 13th of May and on June 5, the Ethiopian Air Force launched attacks at Asmara Airport and the Eritrean Air Force retaliated by attacking Mekelle, and a full fledged war broke out


Thursday, 4 May 2017

In the mind of the dictator September 1992

In the mind of the dictator September 1992

Interview of Secretary General Isaias Afwerki with Al Sharq Al Awsat 16.08.92 translated selections in English on establishment of a multi-party democracy, realtions with the Arab world and other relevant issues. On political parties he mentions that the EPLF will dissolve itself and that if the EPLF was the sole and influential and dominant party it would not contribute to a healthy political atmosphere.....


Tuesday, 2 May 2017

Eritrea who was who in 1992

Eritrea who was who in 1992

On May 22, the Provisional Government of Eritrea (PGE) issued Proclamation No. 23/1992 on the Structure of the PGE. It was stated that the Central Committee (CC) of the EPLF will be the legislative body until the referendum is completed and a permanent constitutional government is established. The Executive authority was decided to a 28 member Advisory Council headed by the Secretary General. The other members were to be the Governors of the 10 provinces and the various secretaries for the different sectors. The following were the members of the then Advisory Council

Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

Saturday, 29 April 2017

Thursday, 27 April 2017

Tigre and the others: Linguistic and cultural Changes within the Tigre area

Tigre and the others: Linguistic and cultural Changes within the Tigre area by Prof. Gianfrancesco Lusini

التقرى وغيرهم: التغيرات اللغوية والثقافية داخل منطقة التقرى


Opening speech at History and language of the Tigre-speaking peoples. Proceedings of the International Workshop, Naples, February 7 – 8, 2008 «Studi Africanistici. Serie Etiopica» 8, Napoli: Università di Napoli “L'Orientale”, edited by Prof. Gianfrancesco Lusini

كلمة افتتاحية في "تاريخ ولغة الشعوب الناطقة بالتقرى. وقائع ورشة العمل الدولية، نابولي، 7 - 8 فبراير 2008

Thanks to Prof. Gianfrancesco Lusini for sharing

Sunday, 23 April 2017

Copies of the original Tigrinya letters exchanged between Isaias Afwerki and Meles Zenawi

Copies of the original Tigrinya hand-written letters exchanged between Isaias Afwerki and Meles Zenawi prior to the 1998 war , with summaries in English



Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

Saturday, 22 April 2017

Remarks on the archaeology of the Tigre area

Remarks on the archaeology of the Tigre area by Andrea Manzo

ملاحظات على آثار منطقة التقرى


A paper presented at the “History and language of the Tigre-speaking peoples. Proceedings of the International Workshop, Naples, February 7 – 8, 2008 «Studi Africanistici. Serie Etiopica» 8, Napoli: Università di Napoli “L'Orientale”, edited by Prof. Gianfrancesco Lusini

ورقة بحثية قدمت في "تاريخ ولغة الشعوب الناطقة بالتقرى. وقائع ورشة العمل الدولية، نابولي، 7 - 8 فبراير 2008

Thanks to Prof. Gianfrancesco Lusini for sharing

Friday, 21 April 2017

The agreements between Eritrea and Ethiopia that ended up in war

The main agreement between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the then Transitional Government of Ethiopia, 20  July 1993


The agreement between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the then Transitional Government of Ethiopia, 23 September 1993


The Joint Communique of 1993


The Joint Communique of 1994



Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

Wednesday, 19 April 2017

The time Eritrea was divided into six regions 1995

Eritrea 22 years ago, when the country was administratively divided into six regions,

That date, the following were appointed as Administrators of the Regions, Ibrahim Toteel (N. Red Sea), Alamin Sheikh Saleh (Anseba), Mustafa Nur Hussein (Gash-Barca), Mesfin Hagos (Southern Region). That period Dr. Tesfay Germatzion was a Minister of Agriculture, and Adhanom Geberemariam was the Administrator of Seraye (Before the designation of the new regions).

Since 1991, The actors of the play keep changing, but so far, the master is one. Three of the Region Administrators then are in Prison, Mesfin Hagos is in the diaspora


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for the collection

Tuesday, 11 April 2017

A 1984 publication by Marxist-Leninist (ML) Core in the TPLF

When the TPLF was TOO RED
A 1984 publication by Marxist-Leninist (ML) Core in the TPLF
Some highlights:
Pre-TPLF Ethiopia: The civilization of Axum which thrived in what is now Tigray and some outlying areas was one of the most slave societies of the time and the fall of Axum around 10th century AD was also the fall of slavery as a social system; Yohannes IV was regarded as a feudal lord; Ethiopia emerged as a full-fledged empire at the end of the 19th century.
ML & its relations with other Ethiopian forces: The TPLF had the ML since its inception and it passed a resolution in the TPLF First Congress in 1979, to make it legal for the vanguard elements and communist cadres (both in the army and mass organizations) to organize openly at a higher level and make necessary preparations for that. It stated that the Proletariat is the leader of the revolution and that the peasants were its core. At the beginning of 1980 the writings of Enver Hoxha’s , the Chair of the Albanian Communist party that was anti-Maoist and anti-Soviet Socialism, found its way to the TPLF and the ML since adopted his line; the ML was against the Tigray Liberation Front (TLF), which it accused as narrow Tigrinyan nationalist, it was also against the EPRP (Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Party), All Ethiopia Socialist Movement (Meison), and Ethiopian Democratic Union (EDU). It rooted them out of Tigray one after the other and became the sole power in there.
Regarding the Eritrean Peoples’ struggle: It considered it a colonial question and just, but it stated that there is a need for a genuine proletarian leadership, if the Eritrean people struggle was to result not only in national liberation, but in social emancipation, as well.

It also supported the Palestinian struggle against Zionism and Imperialism


Monday, 10 April 2017

The opinion of the Institute of Ethiopian Nationalities on the Jeberti 1987

The opinion of the Institute for the study of Ethiopian Nationalities on the Jeberti 1987

When the Jeberti, in Eritrea requested that they be recognized as a separate nationality, The ruling party then, The Workers Party of Ethiopia (WPE) , did not arrest them or kill them, but sent a team of experts from the  Institute for the study of Ethiopian Nationalities to study their case. This is the opinion of the team: The opinion was translated from Amharic to English by Berhane Mekonen, a senior lecturer, Mekelle University


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing the document


In a separate case, when the Assaworta in Eritrea requested they be recognized in 1986, a separate nationality, the Institute sent a team to study their case. The members of the team were: Yusuf Yassin, Dr. Yayehyirad Kitaw, Dr. Asmelash Beyene and Abiye Fitawork, In both cases, the opinion of the teams was not in favour of the requests.

Tuesday, 4 April 2017

The Hand-written Manifesto of the TPLF, Feb. 1976

A copy of the original, hand-written English version, of the Tigray Peoples' Liberation Front's (TPLF) Manifesto  of February 1976


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing the document

Sunday, 2 April 2017

Human Rights issues in Eritrea in 1955

Human Rights issues in Eritrea in 1955 as raised in an article in the Modern Law Review, Issue 5, pp. 484 -486

The idea of a citizen having any rights against the authorities being an startling innovation, in Eritrea resort to the Supreme Court in defence of a constitutional right has been rare, but five cases has arisen in the first two and a half years of self governance, that article discusses those cases....


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

Thursday, 30 March 2017

The Law of “ADGHENATECHLEBA” , the law of the people of AKele Guzai Division

The Law of “ADGHENATECHLEBA” , the law of the people of Acchele Guzai Division. The 29 District Chiefs and 83 persons experts in law who were selected by the villagers of the various districts of Acchele Guzai Division held several meetings which lasted one and half year in Segeneiti, Adi Caieh and Senafe and succeeded in drawing up this Code which comes into force with effect from 28th Tahsas 1937 (7th January, 1944).

It can be downloaded here:


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Saturday, 25 March 2017

When the Axumites invaded and occupied Yemen

When the Abyssinians came to the rescue of the Christians in Yemen in the 6th century:

The beginning of the war between Abyssinia and Yemen was when king Yusuf “Zi Newas” (515 – 525 AD) of Yemen converted to Judaism and brutally killed the Christians of Nejran who did not convert to Judaism. Some reports indicate about 20, 000 Christians were killed. One of the Christians, called “Dos Bin Thaalaban”  escaped and contacted the king in Abyssinia and showed him part of a burned Bible. The king said he was ready to help them but did not have ships to transport his army to Yemen. The king contacted the Roman Emperor then, Yustinus (518 – 527 AD) who sent the ships. The Greek writer Cosmos, author of the ‘Christian Comography’ has written an eyewitness account of the preparation of the Axumite army in Adulis. There are different accounts of the number of the Abyssinan army ranging between 4, 000 to 70, 000.  Abyssinian accounts name the king of Axum then, as King Kaleb. The Abyssinian army was led by Abraha or Arbat. Abraha built a church in Sanaa and forced the Yemenis to go pilgrimage the church instead of going to Mecca. The Arabs refer to the year Abraha tried to invade Mecca in 570 AD  (It was also the year the Prophet Mohamed was born), as the ‘year of the elephant’.The incident is also referred to in the Koran. Abraha ruled Yemen for 23 years, up to 544 AD. His son ‘Yexum’ ruled Yemen for 19 years, There were many revolts in Yemen against Abraha rule in Yemen. A detailed account with many Arab and western references is given in the source below.

Source: Gamaladdin A-Shami and his son Dr. Hashim A-Shami. (1997). AL-Manhal Fi Tarikh Wa Akhbar AL Afar (Al-Danakil), (The source on History and Narrative of the Afar (Al-Danakil. Cairo, Kamil Graphics., L:S:B:N. 977/19/4208/5, in 740 pages
The account is detailed in Pages: 124 – 132

The book was translated to Amharic, with additions to the Arabic version in 2007 with the title (ዓፋር (ደንከል) ታሪክና መረጃ አርክ ምንጭ).

Friday, 24 March 2017

The Nile tributaries of Abyssinia

The Nile tributaries of Abyssinia and the sword hunters of the Hamran Arabs by Samuel Baker, 1867


The status and role of the Eritrean Orthodox Church in the union with Ethiopia:

The status and role of the Eritrean Orthodox Church in the union with Ethiopia
Before the advent of Italian colonialism, the Church owned valuable land in the highlands, demanded and got free peasant labor in time for cultivation. During Italian rule, the Church land was confiscated and converted to Italian crown land. Some land was leased to expectant peasant villages and other land was given to Italian settlers. The Church as an economic power was destroyed.

In the Italian desire to weaken the ideological and administrative unity of the Coptic Church, the Italians located its central office in Akle Guzai and demanded it severe its institutional ties to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Abuna Querlos refused to comply. As a result the Italians expelled him from his seat and replaced him with a little known priest from Akle Guzai, who became known as Abuna Markos. Having located the Central office in a region with such heterogeneous social and ideological formation (Moslems made up almost one third of the population, it was the least populated of kebessa regions and the largest number of defectors from the Coptic Church were there, where the new converts to Catholicism numbered at least one seventh of the Coptic population), the Italians succeeded in weakening the Abuna Markos’s Office to the point where its survival depended on the Italians. When the Italians occupied Ethiopia in 1935, they further weakened the unity of the Church by locating the Tigre section to be administered by Abuna Markos. So when Haile Sellasie returned to his throne in 1941, the Abuna was in a difficult position.

Yet, the Church exerted super structural influence, i.e. the ideology of the masses still remained that of Coptic Christianity. Immediately after the Italian defeat, it made every effort to reverse history. In 1947, it was joined by the Society for the union of Eritrea with Ethiopia (SUEE) which later became the Unionist Party. It cultivated its allies from the Kebessa, including the Massawa nobility and the chiefs of Muslim lowlands. The party’s founding fathers and active members had already secured, by the early forties important high offices in the Addis-based Ethiopian Government, namely Vice-Chancellor of Addis; Director of Ethiopian Post and Telegraph; and his Majesty’s Minister of Pen. The main aim of the party was to cultivate mass support for union with Ethiopia. In return the Ethiopia was to restore to the Church and chiefs their lost economic and political power, and through intermarriage, etc., make them part of the Shoan-Amhara feudal ruling class. The agent for this conspiracy was the Eritrean Coptic Church. It began intimidating the highland peasant s, threatening to excommunicate, refusing holy services of baptism and burial if the Church adherents did not support union with Ethiopia. But the more the conspiracy took shape the more it became exposed, the heads of the Church increasingly relied on anti-Muslim paranoia and hysteria to gain support for a union with Ethiopia. With this, fragile and ‘unholy’ alliance created between the chiefs and heads of the unionist Party collapsed. And the Church temporarily succeeded in forming anti-Muslim Christian solidarity for the unionist cause. With the partial success of the Coptic cause, a counter party articulated the interest of the lowlands, the Muslim League was already formed in 1946.

Quoting Trevaskis, “ by 1942 every priest became a propagandist in the Ethiopian cause, every village church had become a center of Ethiopian nationalism, and popular religious feast days such as “Maskal” had become occasions for open displays of Ethiopian patriotism. The cathedral, monasteries, and village churches would be festooned with Ethiopian flags and sermons would be delivered in unequivocal political language”.

It is worth to mention that there were a minority of Christian elites at that time, headed by Ras Tesemma Asberom who was against the Church role in trying to unite Eritrea with Ethiopia, at any cost, even using extreme forms of violence.
Source: Jordan Gebre-Medhin , Peasants and nationalism

Thursday, 16 March 2017

Hgi Enda Fegrai

Enda Fegrai The law takes its name from the village where it was created. Elements of two districts (Egghelà Hatzin and Tedrer) were involved at a very ancient and unrecorded time. This law was revised in Adi Goddo in 1905, and it is also followed in the Seraye district of Temezza.


Tuesday, 14 March 2017

The Trump archive

The Trump Archive collects TV news shows containing debates, speeches, rallies, and other broadcasts related to President Donald Trump. This evolving non-commercial, searchable collection is designed to preserve the historical record for posterity.

The project is a work in progress, with improvements planned for expanding the collection and making searching more efficient.


Monday, 27 February 2017

Money and Banking in Eritrea from the Axumite Kingdom to the Present

Historical Development of Money and Banking in Eritrea from the Axumite Kingdom to the Present, a 2006 article by Ravinder Rena

The development of money is an abstract of the history of civilization. Financial institutions encourage saving habit among the people by receiving deposits from the public in various forms. The Axumite kings were the first to mint coins in the African Continent. The aim of this paper is to explore the lessons learned from the different historical developments in the country and the region. The paper discusses the origin of banking system in Eritrea. It highlights the historical evolution and growth of money and banking in Eritrea during the Axumite, Italian, and the British, Ethiopian periods. It also provides the chronological development of money and banking from historical times to the post-independent Eritrea. It also deals with the existing banking institutions in the country. The paper makes an extensive use of related literature in enlightening the money and banking system in Eritrea during the historical period. It ends with summary and concluding remarks.


Friday, 24 February 2017

A 1974 memoirs of a 15 year old school boy on his experience with the ELF health services

 مذكرات لطالب ارتري عندما كان عمره  ١٥ عاما  عن تجربته في ١٩٧٤ مع وحدة للخدمات الصحية التابعة لجبهة التحرير الأرترية  في العيادة المركزية في دبر سالا والمناطق المحررة الأخري التي زارها 

Revisiting a 1974 memoirs of a 15 year old school boy on his experience with the ELF health services in Debir Sala and other liberated areas, in Arabic

Mohamed Issa, started his journey in Kassala with an ELF Helath Sevices Unit carrying medical supplies and medical equipment to the field. His reflections are given on a background of vivid description of the  fascination with the beauty of the natural scenery. He narrates, among other things. on life of the freedom fighters and patients at the military hospital at Debir (mountain) Sala, attempts to find another appropriate place, his interactions with a cobra, on fetching water to the mountain, on accompanying a unit that went to the Ethiopian occupied Keru. The purpose was to enable a delegation from the Tigrian Liberation Front that was visting the ELF at that time to meet their Tigrian clandestine colleague who was the Director of the elementary school there. on his chats with a fighter who participated in derailing the train at Ashedira, on the traditional healer who stopped the continous nose bleeding from a freedom fighter, his talk with a Sudanese fighter from Al Nihoud in Sudan who joined the ELF: He was later advised to continue his studies and sent back to Kassala. Mohamed Issa currently lives in Canada and plans to expand the memoirs and also translate them to English.

It can be downloaded from the link below:



This was first published, in series, in his blog, http://www.themovingsands.com/

بدأ محمد عيسى رحلته في كسلا مع الوحدة الصحية لجبهة التحرير الإرترية التي كانت تنقل امدادات ومعدات طبية الي دبر سالا. مذكراته ليست مجرد سرداً للاحاداث بل وصفاً للمناظر الطبيعية الخلابة للمناطق التي زارها تأملاته مبنيه على خلفية وصفا حيا من الانبهار بجمال المناظر الطبيعية. من بين أمور أخرى، يسرد عن حياة المناضلين والمرضى في المستشفى العسكري في دبر(جبل) سالا، محاولة إيجاد مكان آخر مناسب، مواجهتهي مع أفعى الكوبرا، عن جلب الماء إلى الجبل، عن مرافقته للوحدة التي ذهبت الي كيرو والتي كانت محتلة من قبل القوات الإثيوبية لكي يتمكن وفد من جبهة تحرير تقراي والذي كان في زيارة لجبهة التحرير، من مقابلة عضو سري لهم كان مدير المدرسة الابتدائية هناك، عن الأحاديث التي أجراها مع مقاتل  شارك في تعطيل واخراج  قطار عن مساره في أشىديرا ، عن الحجاب  الذي اوقف النزيف الحاد والمستمر من الانف لمناضل، حديثه مع مقاتل سوداني من آلنهود الذي انضمم إلى جبهة التحرير: حيث تم أبلاغه في وقت لاحق بمتابعة دراسته وتم اعادته الى كسلا. يعيش محمد عيسى حاليا في كندا، ولديه خطط لتوسيع مذكراته، وترجمتها إلى الإنجليزية- لقد نشرت مذكراته لأول مرة عبر اجزاء  في مدونته

: يمكن تحميل المذ كرة عبر الرابط ادناه

Wednesday, 22 February 2017

Patriots or Bandits? Britain's Strategy for Policing Eritrea 1941-1952

Patriots or Bandits? Britain's Strategy for Policing Eritrea 1941-1952, a 2000 article Nene Mburu

This article analyses counter-banditry policies during the British military administration of Eritrea from 1941 to 1952. The study dismisses the claim that post-Second World War Eritrea was too fragmented along ethnic and religious lines to be allowed to gain political independence. Its finding is that such claims were calculated to influence the political future of the territory through an international compromise deal that allowed Ethiopia to administer, and later to colonize Eritrea. Britain’s counter-banditry measures failed because she did not deliver the liberation promises made to the people of Eritrea during the World War, there was little investment in will and resources, and her wider imperialistic designs in the Horn of Africa came on the way. The article concludes that, whatever the ethnic or religious identity of Shifta bandits, the causes, course, and resolution of banditry could not be isolated from the uncertainty and complexity of determining Eritrea’s sovereignty. Hence the political protest that was treated as banditry during the British Military Administration of Eritrea from 1941 to 1952 crystallized into four decades of formidable liberation struggle against Ethiopia’s administration.


Dr. Habte one of the great leaders of the Eritrean Revolution

Dr. Habte one of the great leaders of the Eritrean Revolution
He was from the beginning, opposed to Isayas’s ‘Nehnan Elamanan’ that was meant to mobilize Christian highlanders against the ELF and who remained committed to the ELF and to National Democratic Liberation of Eritrea. He did not also heed to the several advices of Woldeab Woldemariam, of the necessity of establishing a Christian organization that could counteract, the ELF which he considered an Islamic organization.

A short biographical note
Dr. Habte (16 July 1943 – 13 January 2007)
  • Born in Asmara, where he completed his secondary education there
  • Joined the Asmara Teachers Training Institute, where he worked as a teacher for a short while
  • He moved to Harer afterwards where he studied Veterinary Medicine at Alemaya
  • College of Agriculture
  • Travelled to Poland where he received  the Veterinariae Medicinae Doctoris (VMD) degree from Warsaw University in Poland
  • Moved to Germany and completed his PhD studies at Freie Universität Berlin Magna Cum Laude with Distinction in 1973 
He was very active in the Eritrean struggle for independence at an early age. He once told us that his family were in support of Eritrea’s independence and thus were threatened by the Unionists and they used to sleep at the home of a relative police officer.
  • He was a member of the clandestine cells of the Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM)
  • He was one of the founders of the General Union of Eritrean Students (GUES) in Europe and its first Chairman. GUES was affiliated to the ELF
  • While in Europe, he was opposed to Eritreans joining the Ethiopian Students Movement (ESM) and becoming part of it, unlike some Eritreans who not only participated in ESM, but chaired it
  • He was active in the unity efforts of GUES-ELF and GUES-PLF and participated in the Unity Conference of GUES that was held in Damascus on the 18th of December, 1968.
  • After completing his PD studies he joined the ELF and participated in the ELF 2nd national congress held in 1975
  • He was elected to the Revolutionary Council in that Congress
  • He was appointed as the Director of the ELF Cadres’ School after the Congress
  • He was later appointed as in ELF’s Foreign Relations Bureau as Head of the African and European desk
  • Together with Dr. Yusuf Berhanu, he was one of the founders of the Eritrean Red Cross and Crescent Society (ERCCS)- an organization that helped alleviate the sufferings of Eritreans displaced in the liberated areas and also helped refugees in neighboring countries.
  • He also contributed in the establishment of the Eritrean refugees School in Kassala that was funded by the UNHCR and run by the ELF
  • After the split in the ELF in 1982, he joined ELF-RC (ELF-Revolutionary Council, after a later split within the ELF-RC he remained with the faction that did not join the Eritrean Democratic Party.
  • He assumed various roles in the ELF
  • Dr. Habte was elected as the Chairman of the Eritrean National Salvation Front (ENSF), a post he assumed until his death

Sources: ENSF, Dr. Habte’s interview with Awate.com, 2003, personal communication
Dr. Habte's interview with Awate.com on the split of the ELF-RC